The history of the collection (part 3)
The opening of the Moscow Public and Rumyantsev Museum in 1862 significantly stimulated the collecting activities of Muscovites, many of whom came from a merchant environment. By the opening of the Museum in 1862, the Hermitage transferred to its collection two hundred paintings by Western European masters, however, during the existence of the Museum (a little more than fifty years), its picture gallery was significantly enriched by the gifts of private individuals.in 1924, the picture gallery of the Rumyantsev Museum almost completely passed to the GMII. The Italian school, which occupied two of the six exhibition halls of the Museum, was represented mainly by paintings of painters of the XVII-XVIII centuries. The works of such masters as Guercino, Pietro da Cortona, Alessandro Turki, Paolo Pagani, Luca Giordano, can now be seen in the Museum.
Among the Moscow collectors of the second half of the XIX – early XX century, whose collections eventually joined the Museum, should be called GA Brocard, Di Shchukin, Zubalov and many others. An extensive collection of paintings by old masters gathered the owner of the famous Moscow perfume factory, a Frenchman by origin, GA Brocard (14). It consisted of more than a thousand works and many of the paintings of the Italian school, later transferred to the Museum, have a very high artistic level. These are both masterpieces of Bernardo Strozzi- “a Wonderful saturation of five loaves and two fish” and presented at the exhibition work ” Old coquette “or” Vanitas”, paired paintings by Gaspare Traversi,” school of boys “And” school of needlework”, as well as a sketch by Corrado Jacuinto” Apotheosis of the Spanish monarchy”, which can also be seen in this exhibition. After the death of the collector, the extensive collection of G. A. Brocard was divided among his heirs, and later, in the period from 1924 to 1928, it partially entered the Museum of fine arts, and partially was dispersed to different museums, Russian and foreign.
Dmitry Ivanovich Shchukin, brother of Sergei Ivanovich who collected new French painting, was fond of old Dutch masters. It is to the Dutch school, he attributed presented at the exhibition “still Life with mushrooms”, the author of which is actually a Neapolitan painter Paolo Porpora; from the same collection came and paired landscapes Francesco Guardi, decorating the permanent exhibition of the Museum. The zubalov collection was also famous for its countless treasures in Moscow.in the post-revolutionary period, One of the Central bases of the state Fund, where works from nationalized collections were brought, was located in their luxurious mansion. At the Verona exhibition, in addition to the Roman “Battle of Zama”, leading its history from gotzkowsky, presented the work of the Venetian painter of the XVIII century Francesco Zugno “Saint Cecilia”, at one time also belonged to Zubalov,. This altarpiece was executed for the Church of San Cassiano in Venice and signed with the name of Giambattista Tiepolo, in whose workshop Zugno worked.
Of the works shown at the exhibition attract the attention of remarkable works, leading its origin from the Moscow collectors. These are Manfredi’s” fruit Seller,” Valerio Castello’s “St. Lawrence,” magnasco’s “the nuns’ Meal,” Bernardo Cavallino’s ” the Exile of Iliodor.”
Already in Soviet times, a very large and interesting collection of paintings had M. B. benedictov. From it, the Museum received several works that can be seen at the exhibition. These are Jacopo Amigoni’s” Bathsheba’s toilet”, Pierre Dandini’s “Belshazzar’s Feast”, Francesco Cairo’s “death of Sophonisba”, Canaletto’s paired landscapes relating to the early period of his work, Bonaventure Bettera’s signature still life. Some of these works were donated to the Museum by the collector himself, others went to the GMII in 1937 after benedictov, who held a responsible post in the NKVD, was repressed.
In the postwar period, the main source of replenishment of the collection was the acquisition of works from individuals through the Procurement Commission under the Ministry of culture of the USSR. The paintings were bought exclusively on the domestic market, mainly from Muscovites and Leningraders; their owners were often random persons to whom they fell due to any circumstances and often at the time of historical cataclysms that shook the country. However met and real collectors, which has ever managed carry its focus on maintaining through difficult years prohibitions on such a kind of activities. A special place among Moscow collectors rightfully occupies F. E. Vishnevsky, a man of diverse interests, passionately passionate about his work. The founder of the Museum Tropinin and Moscow artists of his time, he had a collection of not only Russian but also Western European paintings, which numbered several dozen paintings by old Italian masters. Over time, the collection dispersed, however, several paintings from it, including the Italian school, in different ways were in our Museum. One of the best among them is “Death of Cleopatra” by Francesco Trevisani. In connection with the 60th anniversary of Vishnevsky presented to the Museum an excellent subscription “still Life with writing materials” by Cristoforo Munari, relating to the early period of the artist. In addition to the works of Trevisani and Munari, the exhibition also includes a “portrait of a Woman”, presumably made by Luigi Crespi. Once owned by Vishnevsky, it was accidentally discovered by us in one of the private collections of Moscow and acquired by the Museum in 2002.