The opening of the Moscow Public and Rumyantsev Museum in 1862 significantly stimulated the collecting activities of Muscovites, many of whom came from a merchant environment. By the opening of the Museum in 1862, the Hermitage transferred to its collection two hundred paintings by Western European masters, however, during the existence of the Museum (a little more than fifty years), its picture gallery was significantly enriched by the gifts of private individuals.in 1924, the picture gallery of the Rumyantsev Museum almost completely passed to the GMII. The Italian school, which occupied two of the six exhibition halls of the Museum, was represented mainly by paintings of painters of the XVII-XVIII centuries. The works of such masters as Guercino, Pietro da Cortona, Alessandro Turki, Paolo Pagani, Luca Giordano, can now be seen in the Museum. Continue reading
Gradually collecting works of art captures a wider range of Russian nobility. Since the second half of the XVIII century, well-known private collections of counts Stroganov, princes Golitsyn, Yusupov and many other aristocratic families have their origin. The famous collection of Nikolai Borisovich Yusupov was placed both in the St. Petersburg Palace on Fontanka, built according to the project of Giacomo Quarenghi, and in the Arkhangelsk estate near Moscow and in the Moscow house of the Prince in Kharitonevsky lane. It is believed that Yusupov gave preference to French painting, but numerically it is markedly dominated by the Italian school (8). The greatest interest here represented the work of masters of the XVIII century, in particular, the Roman painter Panini, who in the genre of landscapes with motifs of ruins was the predecessor of so highly valued in Russia Frenchman Hubert Robert. Continue reading
The collection of Italian paintings is one of the most important sections of the Museum’s art gallery: it has more than five hundred and fifty works and chronologically covers the entire period of development of one of the leading European schools of painting. Of these, the permanent exhibition presents no more than two hundred, and those that are stored in the vaults of the Museum, remain little known, both to the General public and specialists.
Italian painting has a special place in the history of the Pushkin state Museum of fine arts (GMII), because it began with the formation of his art gallery. The founder of the Museum Ivan Vladimirovich Tsvetaev, who conceived the idea to create a Museum of casts of works of classical sculpture at Moscow University, even before its opening, came to the conclusion about the need to include originals in the exhibition, primarily paintings. Continue reading
Painting Italy XV-early XVI century introduces the era of formation and flowering of Renaissance art. The ideological basis of the Italian culture of the Renaissance was humanism, and one of its most important components – the discovery and deep creative development of the ancient heritage. The art of that time asserts the idea of the high destiny of man. In their works, the artists displayed the world around them, based on scientific achievements, they developed the foundations of linear perspective, studied human anatomy and the laws of lighting.
The leading cultural center during the Early Renaissance (XV century) was Florence. Sandro Botticelli, one of the prominent masters of the time, belongs full of inner excitement “Annunciation”, referring to the late period of his work. Continue reading
Around 1600 in Rome formed two directions-caravaggism and academism, largely determined the further development of not only Italian but also the entire European painting of the subsequent time. Caravaggio and his followers as the main principle proclaimed appeal to reality, while the representatives of Bologna academism led by the Carracci brothers claimed the inviolability of the canons of classical art, enriched by the practice of full-scale drawing.
A striking example of caravaggism can serve as a picture of “Coronation thorns” Tommaso Salini, as well as” fruit Seller ” circle Bartolomeo Manfredi.
Bologna academism is represented in the Museum’s collection by the works of the leading representatives of this direction – Guido Reni, Simone Cantarini, Guercino, Luca Ferrari and other masters. Continue reading